Research in the field of environmental exercise physiology that is conducted within the EP2 program or by the participating member institutions are presented here.


HOTPOXIA research project focuses on the combined effect of hypoxia and heat in endurance athletes. Training in hypoxia is a key part of nearly all international level endurance athletes and it is used to increase hemoglobin mass, maximal oxygen consumption, and ultimately endurance performance. There is some evidence that heat could have similar cellular level effects to hypoxia. In addition, prolonged heat exposure can increase plasma volume, which can be beneficial for endurance performance. HOTPOXIA aims to increase knowledge about the combined effects of the two exposures.

Heat and Cold Therapy for Acute Exercise Recovery (TRECO): Towards Individualized Strategies in Endurance and Strength Athletes (JYU, Pajulahti, HULA)

TRECO research project aims to investigate and develope recovery strategies for endurance and strength athletes. The investigated methods are based on using heat, cooling, and the combination of the two exposures. Temperature exposure on both core and peripheral tissues are investigated.

Heat, Performance, and Recovery (JYU)

Heat, Performance, and Recovery project investigates the use of heat exposure on recovery after acute exercise and the use of repeated heat exposure for training adaptations. The research focuses the recovery and enhancement of strength and power capacities of team-sport athletes. Furthermore, the effects of post-exercise sauna on autonomic nervous system and stress hormones are investigated.


The research is supported by Harvia Oyj, Urheiluopistosäätiö, The Finnish Sauna Society, Suomen Urheilututkimussäätiö, Ellen and Artturi Nyyssönen Foundation, and European Regional Development Fund (A74999).



Wallace, P. J., Gagnon, D., Hartley, G. L., Taber, M. J., . & Cheung, S. 2023. Effects of skin and mild core cooling on cognitive function in cold air in men. Physiological Reports 11 (24).


Wallace, P. J., Hartley, G. L., Nowlan, J. G.,  Ljubanovich, J., Sieh, N., Taber, M. J., Gagnon, D. & Cheung, S. 2023. Endurance Capacity Impairment in Cold Air Ranging from Skin Cooling to Mild Hypothermia. Journal of Applied Physiology. Article in Press.


Borgenström, J., Kyröläinen, H., Pihlainen, K., Vaara, J. & Ojanen, T. 2023. Effects of male paratroopers’ initial body composition on changes in physical performance and recovery during a 20-day winter military field training. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. Just-IN.